Research important disclaimer

The term “KEPLER CHEUVREUX” shall, unless the context otherwise requires, mean each of KEPLER CHEUVREUX and its affiliates, subsidiaries and related companies (see “Regulators” table below).

Organizational and administrative arrangements to avoid and prevent conflicts of interests

KEPLER CHEUVREUX promotes and disseminates independent investment research and have implemented written procedures designed to identify and manage potential conflicts of interest that arise in connection with its research business, which are available upon request. The KEPLER CHEUVREUX research analysts and other staff involved in issuing and disseminating research reports operate independently of KEPLER CHEUVREUX Investment Banking business. Information barriers and procedures are in place between the research analysts and staff involved in securities trading for the account of KEPLER CHEUVREUX or clients to ensure that price sensitive information is handled according to applicable laws and regulations.

Please refer to for further information relating to research and conflict of interest management.

Analyst disclosures

Regulation AC – Analyst Certification: Each Equity/Credit Research Analyst(s) listed on the front-page of this report, principally responsible for the preparation and content of all or any identified portion of this research report hereby certifies that, with respect to each issuer or security or any identified portion of the report with respect to an issuer or security that the equity research analyst covers in this research report, all of the views expressed in this research report accurately reflect their personal views about those issuer(s) or securities. Each Equity/Credit Research Analyst(s) also certifies that no part of their compensation was, is, or will be, directly or indirectly, related to the specific recommendation(s) or view(s) expressed by that equity research analyst in this research report.

Each Equity/Credit Research Analyst certifies that he is acting independently and impartially from KEPLER CHEUVREUX shareholders, directors and is not affected by any current or potential conflict of interest that may arise from any KEPLER CHEUVREUX activities.

Analyst Compensation: The research analyst(s) primarily responsible for the preparation of the content of the research report attest that no part of the analyst’s(s’) compensation was, is or will be, directly or indirectly, related to the specific recommendations expressed by the research analyst(s) in the research report. The research analyst’s(s’) compensation is, however, determined by the overall economic performance of KEPLER CHEUVREUX.

Registration of non-US Analysts: Unless otherwise noted, the non-US analysts listed on the front of this report are employees of KEPLER CHEUVREUX, which is a non-US affiliate and parent company of Kepler Capital Markets, Inc. a SEC registered and FINRA member broker-dealer. Equity/Credit Research Analysts employed by KEPLER CHEUVREUX, are not registered/qualified as research analysts under FINRA/NYSE rules, may not be associated persons of Kepler Capital Markets, Inc. and may not be subject to NASD Rule 2711 and NYSE Rule 472 restrictions on communications with covered companies, public appearances, and trading securities held by a research analyst account.

Please refer to the following link for a full list of investment recommendations issued over the last 12 months by the author(s) and contributor(s) of this report on any financial instruments.


>Kepler Cheuvreux, Autorité des Marchés Financiers (AMF)
> Kepler Cheuvreux, Amsterdam branch, Autoriteit Financiële Markten (AFM)
> Kepler Cheuvreux, Brussels branch, Financial Services and Markets Authority (FSMA) 
> Kepler Cheuvreux, Frankfurt branch, Bundesanstalt für Finanzdienstleistungsaufsicht (BaFin)
> Kepler Cheuvreux (Suisse) SA, Swiss Financial Market Supervisory Authority (FINMA)
> Kepler Cheuvreux, London branch, Financial Conduct Authority (FCA)
> Kepler Cheuvreux, Madrid branch, Comisión Nacional del Mercado de Valores (CNMV)
> Kepler Cheuvreux, Milan branch, Commissione Nazionale per le Società e la Borsa (CONSOB)
> Kepler Cheuvreux, Oslo branch, Finanstilsynet (NFSA)
> Kepler Cheuvreux, Stockholm branch, Finansinspektionen (FI)
> Kepler Cheuvreux, Vienna branch, Austrian Financial Services Authority (FMA)
> Kepler Cheuvreux (Suisse) SA, Zurich branch, Swiss Financial Market Supervisory Authority (FINMA)
> Kepler Capital Markets, Inc., Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (FINRA)
KEPLER CHEUVREUX is authorised and regulated by both Autorité de Contrôle Prudentiel and Autorité des Marchés Financiers.

Legal and disclosure information

Country and region disclosures

United Kingdom: This document is for persons who are Eligible Counterparties or Professional Clients only and is exempt from the general restriction in section 21 of the Financial Services and Markets Act 2000 on the communication of invitations or inducements to engage in investment activity on the grounds that it is being distributed in the United Kingdom only to persons of a kind described in Articles 19(5) (Investment professionals) and 49(2) (High net worth companies, unincorporated associations, etc.) of the Financial Services and Markets Act 2000 (Financial Promotion) Order 2005 (as amended). It is not intended to be distributed or passed on, directly or indirectly, to any other class of persons. Any investment to which this document relates is available only to such persons, and other classes of person should not rely on this document.

United States: This communication is only intended for, and will only be distributed to, persons residing in any jurisdictions where such distribution or availability would not be contrary to local law or regulation. This communication must not be acted upon or relied on by persons in any jurisdiction other than in accordance with local law or regulation and where such person is an investment professional with the requisite sophistication to understand an investment in such securities of the type communicated and assume the risks associated therewith.

This communication is confidential and is intended solely for the addressee. It is not to be forwarded to any other person or copied without the permission of the sender. This communication is provided for information only. It is not a personal recommendation or an offer to sell or a solicitation to buy the securities mentioned. Investors should obtain independent professional advice before making an investment.

Notice to U.S. Investors: This material is not for distribution in the United States, except to “major US institutional investors” as defined in SEC Rule 15a-6 (“Rule 15a-6”). KEPLER CHEUVREUX has entered into a 15a-6 Agreement with Kepler Capital Markets, Inc. (“KCM, Inc.”) which enables this report to be furnished to certain U.S. recipients in reliance on Rule 15a-6 through KCM, Inc.

Each U.S. recipient of this report represents and agrees, by virtue of its acceptance thereof, that it is a “major U.S. institutional investor” (as such term is defined in Rule 15a-6) and that it understands the risks involved in executing transactions in such securities. Any U.S. recipient of this report that wishes to discuss or receive additional information regarding any security or issuer mentioned herein, or engage in any transaction to purchase or sell or solicit or offer the purchase or sale of such securities, should contact a registered representative of KCM, Inc.

KCM, Inc. is a broker-dealer registered with the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) under the U.S. Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, Member of the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (“FINRA”) and Member of the Securities Investor Protection Corporation (“SIPC”). Pursuant to SEC Rule 15a-6, you must contact a Registered Representative of KCM, Inc. if you are seeking to execute a transaction in the securities discussed in this report. You can reach KCM, Inc. at Tower 49, 12 East 49th Street, Floor 36, New York, NY 10017, Compliance Department (212) 710-7625; Operations Department (212) 710-7606; Trading Desk (212) 710-7602. Further information is also available at You may obtain information about SIPC, including the SIPC brochure, by contacting SIPC directly at 202-371-8300; website:

KCM, Inc. is a wholly owned subsidiary of KEPLER CHEUVREUX. KEPLER CHEUVREUX , registered on the Paris Register of Companies with the number 413 064 841 (1997 B 10253), whose registered office is located at 112 avenue Kléber, 75016 Paris, is authorised and regulated by both Autorité de Contrôle Prudentiel (ACP) and Autorité des Marchés Financiers (AMF).

Nothing herein excludes or restricts any duty or liability to a customer that KCM, Inc. may have under applicable law. Investment products provided by or through KCM, Inc. are not insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation and are not deposits or other obligations of any insured depository institution, may lose value and are not guaranteed by the entity that published the research as disclosed on the front page and are not guaranteed by KCM, Inc.

Investing in non-U.S. Securities may entail certain risks. The securities referred to in this report and non-U.S. issuers may not be registered under the U.S. Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and the issuer of such securities may not be subject to U.S. reporting and/or other requirements. Rule 144A securities may be offered or sold only to persons in the U.S. who are Qualified Institutional Buyers within the meaning of Rule 144A under the Securities Act. The information available about non-U.S. companies may be limited, and non-U.S. companies are generally not subject to the same uniform auditing and reporting standards as U.S. companies. Securities of some non-U.S. companies may not be as liquid as securities of comparable U.S. companies. Securities discussed herein may be rated below investment grade and should therefore only be considered for inclusion in accounts qualified for speculative investment.

Analysts employed by KEPLER CHEUVREUX SA, a non-U.S. broker-dealer, are not required to take the FINRA analyst exam. The information contained in this report is intended solely for certain “major U.S. institutional investors” and may not be used or relied upon by any other person for any purpose. Such information is provided for informational purposes only and does not constitute a solicitation to buy or an offer to sell any securities under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or under any other U.S. federal or state securities laws, rules or regulations. The investment opportunities discussed in this report may be unsuitable for certain investors depending on their specific investment objectives, risk tolerance and financial position.

In jurisdictions where KCM, Inc. is not registered or licensed to trade in securities, or other financial products, transactions may be executed only in accordance with applicable law and legislation, which may vary from jurisdiction to jurisdiction and which may require that a transaction be made in accordance with applicable exemptions from registration or licensing requirements.

The information in this publication is based on sources believed to be reliable, but KCM, Inc. does not make any representation with respect to its completeness or accuracy. All opinions expressed herein reflect the author’s judgment at the original time of publication, without regard to the date on which you may receive such information, and are subject to change without notice.

KCM, Inc. and/or its affiliates may have issued other reports that are inconsistent with, and reach different conclusions from, the information presented in this report. These publications reflect the different assumptions, views and analytical methods of the analysts who prepared them. Past performance should not be taken as an indication or guarantee of future performance, and no representation or warranty, express or implied, is provided in relation to future performance.

KCM, Inc. and any company affiliated with it may, with respect to any securities discussed herein: (a) take a long or short position and buy or sell such securities; (b) act as investment and/or commercial bankers for issuers of such securities; (c) act as market makers for such securities; (d) serve on the board of any issuer of such securities; and (e) act as paid consultant or advisor to any issuer. The information contained herein may include forward- looking statements within the meaning of U.S. federal securities laws that are subject to risks and uncertainties. Factors that could cause a company’s actual results and financial condition to differ from expectations include, without limitation: political uncertainty, changes in general economic conditions that adversely affect the level of demand for the company’s products or services, changes in foreign exchange markets, changes in international and domestic financial markets and in the competitive environment, and other factors relating to the foregoing. All forward-looking statements contained in this report are qualified in their entirety by this cautionary statement.

France: This publication is issued and distributed in accordance with Articles L.544-1 and seq and R. 621-30-1 of the Code Monétaire et Financier and with Articles 313-25 to 313-27 and 315-1 and seq of the General Regulation of the Autorité des Marchés Financiers (AMF).

Germany: This report must not be distributed to persons who are retail clients in the meaning of Sec. 67 para. 3 of the German Securities Trading Act (Wertpapierhandelsgesetz – “WpHG”). This report may be amended, supplemented or updated in such manner and as frequently as the author deems.

Italy: This document is issued by KEPLER CHEUVREUX Milan branch, authorised in France by the Autorité des Marchés Financiers (AMF) and the Autorité de Contrôle Prudentiel (ACP) and registered in Italy by the Commissione Nazionale per le Società e la Borsa (CONSOB) and is distributed by KEPLER CHEUVREUX. This document is for Eligible Counterparties or Professional Clients only as defined by the CONSOB Regulation 16190/2007 (art. 26 and art. 58).Other classes of persons should not rely on this document. Reports on issuers of financial instruments listed by Article 180, paragraph 1, letter a) of the Italian Consolidated Act on Financial Services (Legislative Decree No. 58 of 24/2/1998, as amended from time to time) must comply with the requirements envisaged by articles 69 to 69-novies of CONSOB Regulation 11971/1999. According to these provisions KEPLER CHEUVREUX warns on the significant interests of KEPLER CHEUVREUX indicated in Annex 1 hereof, confirms that there are not significant financial interests of KEPLER CHEUVREUX in relation to the securities object of this report as well as other circumstance or relationship with the issuer of the securities object of this report (including but not limited to conflict of interest, significant shareholdings held in or by the issuer and other significant interests held by KEPLER CHEUVREUX or other entities controlling or subject to control by KEPLER CHEUVREUX in relation to the issuer which may affect the impartiality of this document]. Equities discussed herein are covered on a continuous basis with regular reports at results release. Reports are released on the date shown on cover and distributed via print and email. KEPLER CHEUVREUX branch di Milano analysts is not affiliated with any professional groups or organisations. All estimates are by KEPLER CHEUVREUX unless otherwise stated.

Spain: This document is only intended for persons who are Eligible Counterparties or Professional Clients within the meaning of Article 78bis and Article 78ter of the Spanish Securities Market Act. It is not intended to be distributed or passed on, directly or indirectly, to any other class of persons. This report has been issued by KEPLER CHEUVREUX Sucursal en España registered in Spain by the Comisión Nacional del Mercado de Valores (CNMV) in the foreign investments firms registry and it has been distributed in Spain by it or by KEPLER CHEUVREUX authorised and regulated by both Autorité de Contrôle Prudentiel and Autorité des Marchés Financiers. There is no obligation to either register or file any report or any supplemental documentation or information with the CNMV. In accordance with the Spanish Securities Market Law (Ley del Mercado de Valores), there is no need for the CNMV to verify, authorise or carry out a compliance review of this document or related documentation, and no information needs to be provided.

Switzerland: This publication is intended to be distributed to professional investors in circumstances such that there is no public offer. This publication does not constitute a prospectus within the meaning of Articles 652a and 1156 of the Swiss Code of Obligations.

Canada: This document is for information and marketing purposes only. The information contained herein is not, and under no circumstances to be construed as, a prospectus, an offering memorandum, an advertisement, a public offering, an offer to sell securities, or a solicitation of an offer to buy securities, in Canada or any province or territory thereof. Any offer or sale of the securities described herein in Canada will be made only under an exemption from the requirements to file a prospectus with the relevant Canadian securities regulators under applicable Canadian securities laws in the relevant province or territory of Canada in which such offer or sale is made. Under no circumstances is the information contained herein to be construed as investment advice in any province or territory of Canada and is not tailored to the needs of the recipient. No securities commission or similar regulatory authority in Canada has reviewed or in any way passed upon these materials, the information contained herein or the merits of the securities described herein.

Pursuant to a research distribution agreement between Kepler Cheuvreux and CIBC World Markets Inc. (“CIBC”), CIBC distributes Kepler Cheuvreux equity research to Canadian clients of CIBC. This research report has not been prepared in accordance with the disclosure requirements of Dealer Member Rule 3400 –Research Restrictions and Disclosure Requirements of the Investment Industry Regulatory Organization of Canada (“IIROC”). KEPLER CHEUVREUX is authorised and regulated by both Autorité de Contrôle Prudentiel and Autorité des Marchés Financiers (“AMF”). If this research report had been prepared in compliance with IIROC’s requirements it would require disclosure if the IIROC regulated dealer and its affiliates collectively beneficially owned 1% or more of any class of equity securities issued by the company covered in this research report. Under AMF requirements disclosure is only required for major shareholdings by the AMF regulated dealer or any of its affiliates, including at least shareholdings exceeding 5% of the total issued share capital of the company covered in this research report.

Other countries: Laws and regulations of other countries may also restrict the distribution of this report. Persons in possession of this document should inform themselves about possible legal restrictions and observe them accordingly.

As of July 2020.